Essentials-Read this first

 Literacy Milestones

    Birth to 5 years

    4 to 5 years

    5 to 6 years

    6 to 7 years

    7 to 8 years

Checklists and Charts
   School Readiness Checklist
   Pre-Reading Checklist
   Pre Reading Concepts
   Pre-sch Writing Examples
   School Entry Writing
   Computing Milestones
   Learning Style
   ABC Chart 1
   ABC Chart 2
   ABC Chart 3
   ABC Chart 4
   Reading Assessment
   Reading Strategies
   Self Esteem-PC
   Self Esteem-Child
   Self Esteem Adult
   Sight Words
   Core Vocabulary
   Reading Tests
   Miscue Examples
   Disab. and LD Planner
   Alphabet Activities
   Listening to Reading
   Sight Vocabulary
   Writing Conference
   Reading Activity
   Teach Reading Strategies
   Phonics and Word Building
   Speed and Fluency
   Vocabulary Chart
   Natural Learning
   Teaching Reading Summary
   Trouble Shooting
   Book Selection
   Print Reversals
   Old and New Teaching
   Case Studies
   Learning from Parents
   Book Selection
   Learning Difficulties

















Preschoolers' Writing Examples

These children were asked to write mummy a letter. 
This is what they produced. 
Study these children's scribbles closely and you will see that they are demonstrating real knowledge about writing! 

Further instructions for teachers and parents are below.

2.5 years old

Aaron is just scribbling at this
stage.  There is no sign of forming letters yet.

But at least he knows how to scribble!

Aaron knows how to scribble in circle-like shapes.


2.5 years old
Kera knows something about writing.  She does some scribbling and then begins these writing-like squiggles.  Notice that they are in lines and there are many of them.  However, no letter-like shapes yet.
Kera knows:
  • how to scribble in circles and lines.
  • what writing looks like
  • writing goes left to right
  • writing goes on lines
  • there can be lots of lines of print.


3 years old
Shauna mostly scribbles, but there is a suggestion of writing-like movements on the left hand side.
Shauna knows:
  • how to scribble mostly back and forth, with some circular movements.
  • what writing looks like (possibly)


3.5 years old
Danny does some letter-like shapes first.  They are like Z's, l's, W's or M's.  Then he does some scribbling.
Danny knows:
  • how to scribble back and forth
  • what some letters look like
  • how to do a z, l, and possibly an M shape


4 years old
Megan tries to write her name.  She does the letters Mgt, and an A and o further down the page. Her first attempt is at the top left hand side which shows that she knows where print starts and which direction it flows.  She then draws and scribbles and does Mgt again twice.  Lastly, she draws a circle around the drawing and words as if to signal that they all belong together.
Megan knows:
  • how to scribble up and down and across, with back and forth movements
  • how to draw a face, and maybe a body?
  • some letter shapes
  • how to write her name as Mgt
  • letters M, g, t, A, and O
  • that writing starts top left
  • that writing has directionality and proceeds from left to right
  • that letters in a word are close together


4 years old.

Tanya writes the first letter of her name T at the top left hand side of the page. She then does an O, under that an N, and then another smaller N which could be her attempt at a Y.  She then goes to the right hand side and writes again.  This time a T, T, and an M, and some more letter-like shapes.  She then proceeds to write all around the page, mainly the sharp O-like shapes and the Toovoo in the upper middle area which she then drew around and said "That's my name!"

Tanya knows:
  • how to write some letter shapes
  • that her name begins with a T and includes more letters
  • that writing begins top left on a page
  • how to scribble back and forth
  • how to circle something to make it stand out
  • how to write letters T, N, M, O, V, C, and maybe an l
  • that letters in a word are close together without spaces
  • that letters in a word go from left to right


Ask your children to write you a letter for you, and analyse what you see them do.  You will see that there is so much to learn! 

Whether you are a teacher or a parent your demonstrations of writing are powerful learning and teaching examples for children.  Begin teaching them to write today, just by showing them what writing is, when you use it, how you do it, how you read it, and so on.  The best way to do this is to have them with you when you write, show them how to hold the pencil/crayon, and provide them with materials to write with so that they can have a go too. 

Whatever they produce you must show them that you are proud of their efforts, and that they are doing writing just like you.