First I need to acknowledge
that many adults who have had trouble learning to read, write and spell are
justifiably labelled as Dyslexic. Typically these are very intelligent
people, and they tell of school experiences that were very frustrating and
unhappy. Some have been able to overcome their literacy difficulties as
teenagers or adults as they have come to understand their condition better.
I believe that the causes of dyslexia can be found in the early developmental
lives of individuals, through the social, cultural, and educational practices of
families and schools, and through misinterpretation of the early symptoms by
parents, teachers and medicos. More on this later.
Children who are diagnosed
Dyslexics are experiencing a range of problems with reading, writing, and
spelling which could stem from a variety of causes. Dyslexia is a
description of their condition, not the cause of their problem. It is a
bit like saying that a child is 'sick'. If a doctor told you that your
child was sick you would say, "Yes doctor, I know that, but what's causing his
sickness?" Dyslexia is similar in that the diagnosis is far too broad. If
they have normal language skills, most dyslexics can learn to read normally when
an appropriate learning program is followed.
Listed symptoms of Dyslexia
commonly include one or more of the following:
of letters, numbers and words when reading and writing
reading and writing from right
reading words backwards (eg.
was for saw)
inability to learn to spell
unable to read proficiently
'word blindness' and inability to focus on the print
low reading comprehension
some speech irregularities
These symptoms are also common
characteristics of young, immature or developing readers and writers, as well as
those who have been taught or trained into using poor strategies.
Every time a parent tells me that her child
(usually its a son) is dyslexic I find that the diagnosis has been made by a
Psychologist or medical person such as an GP, Pediatrician, or sometimes an
Optician. These people are well qualified in their field and probably have a
definition of Dyslexia that they understand, but it doesn't help me as a teacher
because they can never offer a plausible teaching strategy to help the child.
One exception to this are the Educational Psychologists who usually set out the
child's problems in great detail, and recommend skills to be taught and how to
do this. However, to teach a child to read and write I need much more
information. I need to spend time finding out what they know; what
strategies they use; what is their Learning Style; who they read to and how they
respond; what their reading and learning environments at home and in the
classroom are like; and which teaching and learning methods will work with this
person and which ones won't.
The complicating factor in
diagnosed cases of 'Dyslexia' are in the person's age. Children who have
been in school for some years come with a host of negative learning and social
difficulties because of their learning experiences. To help these kids you
need to be able to control their learning environments at home and in the
classroom. This means controlling the people who give feedback to the
learner, the adults and the children, and helping them adopt new behaviours
which redirect, refocus and reinforce the reader's best strategies.
This is not the impossible task
that it might at first seem because it is relatively simple to change the
expectations of the learner, and the strategies he/she uses, to create
successful learning experiences for them. The teachers and students,
the parents and siblings, and the grandparents all need to know what the new
rules are when they are working with the child. If the child succeeds and
the people around him/her accept this and give quality feedback the cycle of
success thrives and grows. In this climate the learner's motivation to
work, practice, rehearse and utilise the new strategies grows and becomes very
healthy. Confidence increases and risk taking ability which had been
lacking now allows the learner to attempt new things and to grow their learning
to a new level. This is especially true for spelling, writing and reading.
The other advantage educators
and parents of 'dyslexic' children have today is the technology available.
Computers allow these children to work with relative safety to produce a product
which is as acceptable as the best student's. Word processors, graphics
programs, digital imagery, desk top publishing, spell checkers, grammar
checkers, colour printers, and Internet access, all contribute to a child's
ability to produce a quality product without the precarious hazards of
handwriting. Children who reverse b/d's don't have the problem when
using a keyboard.
Does it run in families?
There is a belief that was popular many
years ago that the learning difficulties that run in families are partly caused
by the tendency of males (in particular) to have a predisposition towards
delayed handedness or mixed dominance. Children have usually decided that
they are left or right handed by the time they go to school, but those who still
swap hands for writing, catching or picking up objects, eating and
throwing, are also often delayed in their learning. The exceptions are
those rare people who are ambidextrous. Mixed dominance is where the child is
for example, left handed, right eyed, and left footed. In these cases it
is thought that the brain has some difficulty in coordinating the hand and eye
messages as they are each sent to different sides of the brain. These
children may have difficulty with hand control, especially the fine motor
tasks of writing and drawing, and they often appear to have poor memories when
in fact their brain keeps switching sides and information which has just been
learned becomes inaccessible to them. Typically, they may recall that
information a short time later. I have seen many instances of this.
I was fortunate to know Adelaide
pediatrician, the late Dr Henry Rischbeith,
who studied these children for many years and offered a 'cure' which seemed to
work. He explained that the 'language' centre is located in the dominant
hemisphere. The brain has two sides or hemispheres in which are located
various areas, many of which have specialised functions. When children use their brain
for an activity such as reading it is thought that an area on one side is used
at first. However, that side of the brain becomes fatigued after a
short period of exercise and swaps to the opposing side. Because the brain
is not able to easily communicate between the hemispheres the information just
learned is temporarily lost. However, it may be recalled soon after when
the original hemisphere
is used again. You can see that learning under these
circumstances would be quite inefficient. You can see this in children who
begin reading quite well but soon become fatigued and cannot remember words that
they recognised a few moments before. However, after a period of rest they
recall those words easily.
He recommended exercising the
naturally dominant side to make it even stronger, while avoiding exercising the less
dominant side. This is done by forcing the child to use their dominant
hemisphere (the language centre) for a language related task such as reading
aloud for up to 10 minutes (less if they show signs of fatigue).
This is done at intervals three
times a day.
Keep up this regime for two years or until the problem rectifies itself.
He recommended that this happen every day, including weekends, birthdays,
Christmas, holidays, etc. I know that it works because I've used it
successfully in a few extreme cases. What we don't know is whether the
person improves because the dominant hemisphere is exercised, or because of the
|Dr Rischbeith said that it is like carrying
a bucket of water up a hill. You normally use one arm for a while and when
that side becomes tired you change arms. After a period of doing this you
end up with two strong arms. This is not what we want to do with the
brain. We want to make only one side dominant. His analogy states
that as soon as the bucket becomes too heavy for the (right) arm, stop and rest
it. After some time begin again with the right arm. Don't try
to lift the bucket with the left arm at all. Soon the right arm will be strong
enough to carry the bucket all the way up to the top of the hill without
fatigue. For right handed children the left side of the brain needs to be
dominant. This is where the language function is located. Hence
reading for lots of short periods may be successful in exercising the left side
of the brain. It is also true that this amount of reading is good practice for
teaching them to read anyway.
The other part of the 'dyslexia family'
mystery that I often hear is, "He's like his father! He had trouble
reading and spelling too!" I'm sure that there are some
physiological features which are inherited, but I believe that it is far more
likely and common to find that the literacy practices within the family are
continued on for several generations. It is the lack of an early and
consistent literacy focus within the home that seems to have a detrimental
effect upon the early learner. These practices tend to be handed down from
one generation to the next, and the pressures of modern living make it even more
difficult to establish routines and make time for literacy. Many parents
are not aware of the importance of creating a literate environment at home
because their own home environment was not overly literate. When their
children go to school they appear to be quite normal but can be up to two years
delayed in their literacy development! That's a huge handicap to
give a child on their first day of school. To see this in practice, visit any Reception class in
Australia and you will find children who can already read, and probably some who
are not familiar with books, and can't do the regular things such as sing the
alphabet or retell a folk story or fairytale. .
Over-zealous parents and poor
There is one more serious issue that must be addressed here as a cause of
Dyslexia-type symptoms, and this is misguided teaching and parenting.
Most parents know that it is
impossible to be a perfect parent. However, some do try to be, and in
their eagerness, and out of love for their children, they inadvertently do too
much, too often, too soon. Grandparents are sometimes the main motivators
for this type of approach. 'Pushing' children to achieve the impossible
before they are ready is disastrous for their development. I know that
this is a generalisation, but I will try to describe these children for you and
possibly you will recognise the problem. These children try to please, to do as
they are taught, but because they can't see the relevance of how it is used they
tire of the tasks, they lose confidence, they adopt avoidance behaviours, and
they focus on the detail at the expense of the big picture. In other words
the 'teaching' they receive prevents they from learning in a natural way.
You can identify these children by their
Learning Style. Teachers can identify them in their first year at
school. They are usually very dependent on others and lacking in
initiative, anxious about their performance, and cautious in their approach to a
learning task. Although they may be quite attentive at times, they will
often attend to the wrong things. In other words their approach to
learning is not natural. (See Natural Learning)
Parents aren't always to blame.
Misguided teaching in the first years of school can also produce similar
results. There are always those teachers who believe in 'old fashioned'
methods, and present reading and writing as a series of minute skills to be
mastered in order, rather than a whole language process. In other words
they teach the right bits but in the wrong order. Many children can
survive and even prosper with this approach, but many others cannot.
The compounding factor in all
of this is that the child's personality determines their approach to learning.
The Learning Style discussed above could be inherited or learned through
experience, but it is going to play a large role in how the child interacts with
and responds to the opportunities to learn both at home and at school.
Over the years I have worked
with hundreds of such children. By the time they have been referred to me
they usually have a few years of failure and frustration behind them.
Typically they display many of the following characteristics:
their reading is focused on the detail of letters,
words and sounds rather than the more natural message that the text might
their goal is to get all the words right rather than
understand the meaning
they are afraid of making mistakes
they wait for others to find their mistakes
they don't correct mistakes even when the text
doesn't make sense, or
they correct themselves continually even when words
are correct and also when they digress from the exact text, even when their
'mistake' is minute and sounds quite natural and acceptable
their main energies go into decoding words
they are not aware that they should practice before
reading to someone
their span of vision is focused on the letters of
the word they
are reading rather than on the approaching line of text
they don't like reading
they avoid reading for leisure
they don't practice to build up their skills
their writing and spelling development mirrors their
Without exception these
children are otherwise normal, healthy, intelligent human beings who want
desperately to be successful learners.
Rose coloured glasses
There are other 'cures' for
Dyslexia such as
the coloured lenses fad which periodically re-emerges. I remain sceptical of
such things because children who are having difficulty reading usually don't know how to
use efficient reading strategies. Where their problem has been ongoing for
a time they will usually have a host of entrenched habits which have to be
changed. Looking through variously coloured tinted lenses can help people to see more
clearly and is obviously helpful to some. I hear of children who can
miraculously read when they put on the tinted glasses or look at print through a
coloured pane of cellophane, but of the many that I have seen not one has
changed from being a poor reader to a better one!
My recommendations for you, if you have a
'Dyslexic' child is to not get too comfortable with that diagnosis because
the child won't get better without a clear understanding of what is needed, and
a supportive family to help them. 'Dyslexics' can learn as well
as anyone. Either find a modern teacher who specialises in teaching Reading and Writing
to children with learning difficulties or use Raising Readers to learn
how to help your child.